The Science Behind Our Products



Niki, E. (1987) Antioxidants in relation to Lipid Peroxidation, Chemistry and Physics of Lipids; 44; 227-253

Vatassery GT, Smith WE, Quach HT. (1989) Ascorbic acid, glutathione and synthetic antioxidants prevent the oxidation of vitamin E in platelets., Lipids; 24(12):1043-7


An earlier report from this laboratory showed that tocopherol in human platelets is oxidized when the platelets are incubated in vitro in Tyrode medium with arachidonate (or other oxidants). Arachidonate is a more potent oxidizing agent in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 with 0.1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) than in Tyrode medium. Forty to fifty percent of total platelet tocopherol was oxidized upon incubation with 40-50 microM arachidonate in the phosphate-buffered medium. The tocopherol oxidation took place within 15 min after the addition of arachidonate. Preincubation of platelets with ascorbate blocked the oxidation of tocopherol. This is one of the first direct in vitro demonstrations of the vitamin E-sparing action of vitamin C in media containing biological cellular material. Other compounds which blocked the oxidation of platelet tocopherol were ascorbyl palmitate, propyl gallate, butylated hydroxytoluene, hydroquinone and glutathione. If ascorbate or glutathione was added after the tocopherol was oxidized to the quinone there was no reversal of the oxidation.

Farriol M, Mourelle M, Schwartz S. (1994) Effect of vitamin C and vitamin E analog on aged fibroblasts., Rev Esp Fisiol; 50(4):253-7


Human dermal fibroblasts were cultured and aged in vitro. Survival of young and aged fibroblasts was determined in the presence and absence of different concentrations of two vitamins. Vit C at doses of 5, 12.5, 25 and 50 mumol/L and water-soluble Vit E (Trolox) at 1, 5, 10 and 50 mg/L, were added 30 minutes before oxidative stress, consisting of exposure to 5 mM hydrogen peroxide for 30 minutes. A non-radioactive cell proliferation cytotoxicity assay (MTT) was used to determine the protective effect of the vitamins studied. Vit C produced a clear cytoprotective effect on aged cells over the entire range of doses applied. The protection provided by Vit E, was less pronounced.