Fisher, E., McLennan, SV., Tada, H., Heffernan, S., Yue, DK., and Turtle, JR. (1991) Interaction of ascorbic acid and glucose on production of collagen and proteogylcan by fibroblasts, Diabetes; 40: 371-375.
Tajima S; Pinnell SR. (1996) Ascorbic acid preferentially enhances type I and III collagen gene transcription in human skin fibroblasts., J Dermatol Sci; 11(3):250-3
Ascorbic acid is a potent stimulator for type I and III collagen expression in human skin fibroblasts; stimulation of type I and III collagen synthesis and their mRNA levels by ascorbic acid has been reported previously. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that ascorbic acid enhanced the transcription of type I and III collagen genes 4- and 3.4-fold respectively, whereas transcription of type IV collagen was slightly stimulated (1.7-fold). The results suggest that ascorbic acid preferentially enhanced type I and III collagen transcription.
Davidson JM, LuValle PA, Zoia O, Quaglino D Jr, Giro M. (1997) Ascorbate differentially regulates elastin and collagen biosynthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells and skin fibroblasts by pretranslational mechanisms., J Biol Chem; 272(1):345-52
Ascorbate contributes to several metabolic processes including efficient hydroxylation of hydroxyproline in elastin, collagen, and proteins with collagenous domains, yet hydroxyproline in elastin has no known function. Prolyl hydroxylation is essential for efficient collagen production; in contrast, ascorbate has been shown to decrease elastin accumulation in vitro and to alter morphology of elastic tissues in vivo. Ascorbate doses that maximally stimulated collagen production (10-200 microM) antagonized elastin biosynthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells and skin fibroblasts, depending on a combination of dose and exposure time. Diminished elastin production paralleled reduced elastin mRNA levels, while collagen I and III mRNAs levels increased. We compared the stability of mRNAs for elastin and collagen I with a constitutive gene after ascorbate supplementation or withdrawal. Ascorbate decreased elastin mRNA stability, while collagen I mRNA was stabilized to a much greater extent. Ascorbate withdrawal decreased collagen I mRNA stability markedly (4.9-fold), while elastin mRNA became more stable. Transcription of elastin was reduced 72% by ascorbate exposure. Differential effects of ascorbic acid on collagen I and elastin mRNA abundance result from the combined, marked stabilization of collagen mRNA, the lesser stability of elastin mRNA, and the significant repression of elastin gene transcription.
Phillips CL, Combs SB, Pinnell SR (1994) Effects of ascorbic acid on proliferation and collagen synthesis in relation to the donor age of human dermal fibroblasts., J Invest Dermatol; 103(2):228-32
Several events are associated with cellular aging: alterations in the extracellular matrix, loss of the cell’s proliferative capacity, and decreased responsiveness to growth factors. In skin, a major component of the extracellular matrix is collagen; an important regulator of collagen synthesis is ascorbic acid, which may also have growth factor-like properties. To investigate the relationship of the extracellular matrix and proliferative capacity to aging, we examined the effects of ascorbic acid on cell proliferation and collagen expression in dermal fibroblasts from donors of two age classes, newborn (3-8 d old) and elderly (78-93 years old). In the absence of ascorbic acid (control) proliferative capacities were inversely related to age; newborn cell lines proliferated faster and reached greater densities than elderly cell lines. However, in the presence of ascorbic acid both newborn and elderly cells proliferated at a faster rate and reached higher densities than controls. To determine whether there are age-related differences in extracellular matrix production and ascorbic acid responsiveness we examined and found that collagen biosynthesis (collagenase-digestible protein) was inversely related to age, but the stimulation by ascorbic acid appeared age independent. The increase in collagen synthesis was reflected by coordinate increases in steady-state pro alpha 1(I) and pro alpha 1(III) collagen mRNAs, suggesting a pretranslational mechanism. Ascorbic acid appears capable of overcoming the reduced proliferative capacity of elderly dermal fibroblasts, as well as increasing collagen synthesis in elderly cells by similar degrees as in newborn cells even though basal levels of collagen synthesis are age dependent.